- Everest is 29,035 feet or 8848
- The summit is the
border of Nepal to the south and China or Tibet on the north
- It is over 60 million years
- Everest was formed by the movement
of the Indian tectonic plate pushing up and against the Asian plate
- Everest grows by about a quarter of an inch
(0.25") every year
- It consist of different types of shale,
limestone and marble
- The rocky summit is covered with deep snow
all year long
- The Jet Stream sits on top of Everest almost
all year long
- The wind can blow over 200 mph
- The temperature can be -80F
- In mid May each year, the jet stream moves
north causing the winds the calm and temperatures to warm enough for people to try
to summit. This is called the 'summit window'. There is a similar period each fall
- It can also be very hot with temperatures
over 100F in the Western Cwm, an area climbers go through to reach the summit.
- Like all mountains around the world the local indigenous people were the first to see it
- Everest is called Chomolungma by the Tibetan people.
It means mother goddess of the universe
- Everest was named Sagarmatha by the Nepal Government.
It means goddess of the sky
- It was first identified
for the western world by a British survey team lead by Sir George Everest
- Everest was first named Peak 15 and measured
at 29,002 feet in 1856
- In 1865, it was named Mount
Everest, after Sir George Everest
- In 1955, the height was adjusted to 29,028
feet and is still used by Nepal
- China uses 29,015 feet as the official height
- Using GPS technology, the summit was
measured at 29,035 feet or 8850 meters in 1999
- Nepal started to remeasure Everest in 2017 due to the 2015 earthquake and will be finished by 2020
Summits - updated December 2017
Early Attempts and Summits
- The first attempt was in 1921
by a British expedition from the north (Tibet) side
- The first summit was on May 29,
1953 by Sir Edmund Hillary from New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay,
a Sherpa from Nepal. They climbed from the south side on a
British expedition lead by Colonel John Hunt.
- The first north side summit was
on May 25, 1960 by Nawang Gombu (Tibetan) and Chinese climbers Chu Yin-Hau
and Wang Fu-zhou
- The youngest person to summit
was American Jordan Romero, age 13 years 11 months, on May 23, 2010
from the north side.
- The oldest person to summit
was Japanese Miura Yiuchiro, age 80 on May 23, 2013
- The first climbers to summit
Everest without bottled oxygen were Italian Reinhold Messner with
Peter Habler in 1978
- Reinhold Messner is the only person to have truly summited Everest solo and without supplemental oxygen. He did it in 1980 from the Tibet side via the Great Couloir
- The youngest male to summit was
American Jordan Romero, age 13 years 10 months, on May 23, 2010 from the
- The oldest male to summit was Japanese
Miura Yiuchiro, age 80 on May 23, 2013
- Apa Sherpa (Thami Og), Phurba
Tashi Sherpa (Khumjung)and Kami Rita (Topke) Sherpa (Thami) all hold the record for most summits (male or female)
with 21, the most recent one in 2017 by Kami Rita.
- American Dave Hahn has the most non-Sherpa
summits with 15, the most recent in 2013
- The first woman to summit Everest
was Junko Tabei of Japan in 1975
- The oldest woman to summit was Japanese
Tamae Watanabe, age 73, in 2012 from the north
- The youngest woman
to summit was Indian Malavath Poorna, 13 years 11 months on May
25, 2014 from the north side
- 536 women have summited through
- Nepali, Lakpa Sherpani holds
the women's summit record with eight (1 South, 7 north)
- There have been 8,306 summits
of Everest through June 2017 on all routes by 4,833
- 1,106 people, mostly Sherpa,
have summited multiple times
- The Nepal side is more popular
with 5,280 summits compared to 3,026 summits from the Tibet side
- 208 climbers summited without
supplemental oxygen through June 2017, about 2.5%
- 32 climbers have traversed from
one side to the other.
- 542 climbers have summited from
both Nepal and Tibet
- 88 climbers have summited more than once in a single season
- 288 people (173 westerners
and 115 Sherpas) have died on Everest from 1924 to June 2017 or 3.4% , a rate of 1.22
- Of the deaths, 168 died attempting
to summit without using supplemental oxygen.
- Of the 288 deaths, 71 died on the
descent after their summit or 25%
- The Nepalese side
has seen 5,280 summits with 181 deaths through June 2017 or 3.6%, a rate of 1.27. 121 died not using Os.
- The Tibet side has seen 3,206
summits with 107 deaths through June 2017 or 3.7%, a rate of 1.15. 47 died not using Os.
bodies all are still on the mountain but China has removed many bodies
- The top causes of death on both sides were from avalanche (77), fall (67), altitude sickness (32) and exposure (26).
- About 63% of all expeditions
put at least one member on the summit.
- From 1923 to 1999: 170
people died on Everest with 1,169 summits or 14.5%. But
the deaths drastically declined from 2000 to 2017 with 7,056
summits and 118 deaths or 1.7%.
- However, two years skewed
the deaths rates with 17 in 2014 and 14 in 2015.
- The reduction in
deaths is primarily due to better gear, weather forecasting
and more people climbing with commercial operations.
- There are 18 different climbing
routes on Everest
- It takes 40 days to climb Mt. Everest
in order for the body to adjust to the high altitude
- There is 66% less oxygen in each breath
on the summit of Everest than at sea level
- Thin nylon ropes are used to keep climbers
- Climbers wear spikes on their boots called
- They also use ice axes to help stop a fall
- Thick, puffy suits filled with goose feathers
keep climbers warm
- Most climbers eat a lot of rice
and noodles for food
- Almost all climbers use bottled oxygen because
it is so high. It helps keep the climbers warm.
- Climbers start using bottled oxygen at 26,000
feet but it only makes a 3,000 foot difference in how they feel so at 27,000 feet,
they feel like they are at 24,000 feet
- You have to be 16 or older to climb
from the Nepal side and between 18 and 60 on the Chinese side.
- The average expedition takes about 39
- Sherpa is the name of a people. They mostly
live in western Nepal. They migrated from Tibet over the last several hundred years
- Sherpa is also used as a last name
- Usually their first name is the day of the
week they were born.
- Nyima - Sunday
- Dawa - Monday
- Mingma - Tuesday
- Lhakpa - Wednesday
- Phurba - Thursday
- Pasang - Friday
- Pemba - Saturday
- Sherpas help
climbers by carrying tents and cooking food to the High Camps
- Sherpas climb Everest as a job to support
- Sherpas can get sick from the altitude like
- Sherpas feel it is disrespectful
to stand literally on the tippy top since that is where Miyolangsangma, the
Tibetan Goddess of Mountains, lives.
- Babu Chiri Sherpa spent the night on the
summit in 1999
- Apa Sherpa and Phurba Tashi both hold
the record for most summits with 21, the most recent one in 2013
- Over 33,000 feet of fixed rope is used each
year to set the South Col route
- You have to be at least 16 to climb Everest
from the south side and 18 from the north
- Climbers burn over 10,000 calories each
day, double that on the summit climb
- Climbers will lose 10 to 20 lbs during the
I returned to climb Mt. Everest and stood on the summit on May 21, 2011.You can read about my climb over the internet on my Blog at www.alanarnette.com/blog.
This was to raise awareness and research funds for Alzheimer's Disease and 100% of all donations go to Alzheimer's. This was part of climbing the 7 Summits - the highest mountain on each continent.