Everest Facts for KiDs
Updated February 2014
Mt. Everest

Geography

  • Everest is 29,035 feet or 8848 meters high
  • The summit is the border of Nepal to the south and China or Tibet on the north
  • It is over 60 million years old
  • Everest was formed by the movement of the Indian tectonic plate pushing up and against the Asian plate
  • Everest grows by about a quarter of an inch (0.25") every year
  • It consist of different types of shale, limestone and marble
  • The rocky summit is covered with deep snow all year long

Weather

  • The Jet Stream sits on top of Everest almost all year long
  • The wind can blow over 200 mph
  • The temperature can be -80F
  • In mid May each year, the jet stream moves north causing the winds the calm and temperatures to warm enough for people to try to summit. This is called the 'summit window'. There is a similar period each fall in November.
  • It can be very hot with temperatures over 100F in the Western Cwm, an area climbers go through to reach the summit.

History

  • Like all mountains around the world, the local, indiginious people were the first to see it
  • Everest is called Chomolungma in Tibet. It means mother goddess of the universe
  • Everest is called Sagarmatha in Nepal. It means goddess of the sky
  • It was first identified for the western world by a British survey team lead by Sir George Everest in 1841
  • Everest was first named Peak 15 and measured at 29,002 feet in 1856
  • In 1865, it was named Mount Everest, after Sir George Everest
  • In 1955, the height was adjusted to 29,028 feet and is still used by Nepal
  • China uses 29,015 feet as the official height today
  • Using GPS technology, the summit was measured at 29,035 feet in 1999

Summits - updated February 2014

Early Attempts and Summits

  • The first attempt was in 1921 by a British expedition from the north (Tibet) side
  • The first summit was on May 29, 1953 by Sir Edmund Hillary from New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay, a Sherpa from Nepal. They climbed from the south side on a British expedition lead by Colonel John Hunt.
  • The first north side summit was on May 25, 1960 by Nawang Gombu (Tibetan) and Chinese climbers Chu Yin-Hau and Wang Fu-zhou
  • The youngest person to summit was American Jordan Romero, age 13, on May 23, 2010 from the north side.
  • The oldest person to summit was Japanese Miura Yiuchiro, age 80 on May 23, 2013
  • The first climbers to summit Everest without bottled oxygen were Italian Reinhold Messner with Peter Habler in 1978

Male Summits

  • The youngest male to summit was American Jordan Romero, age 13, on May 23, 2010 from the north side.
  • The oldest male to summit was Japanese Miura Yiuchiro, age 80 on May 23, 2013
  • Apa Sherpa and Phurba Tashi both hold the record for most summits (male or female) with 21, the most recent one in 2013
  • American Dave Hahn has the most non-Sherpa summits with 14, the most recent in 2013

Female Summits

  • The first woman to summit Everest was Junko Tabei of Japan in 1975
  • The oldest woman to summit was Japanese Tamae Watanabe, age 73, in 2012 from the north
  • The youngest person and woman to summit from the south side was Nepali Nima Chemji Sherpa on May 19, 2012
  • 410 women have summited through February 2014
  • Nepali, Lakpa Sherpani holds the women's summit record with six (1 South, 5 north)

Summit and Death Statistics

  • About 4,042 climbers have summited Everest once and another 2,829 have summited multiple times totaling 6,871 summits of Everest through February 2014
  • The Nepal side is more popular with 4,416 summits compared to 2,450 summits from the Tibet side
  • 192 climbers summited without supplemental oxygen through February 2014, about 2.7%
  • 248 people (161 westerners and 87 Sherpas) have died on Everest from 1924 to 2013.
  • More people have died on the South side, 140 than on the Tibet side, 108.
  • Almost all are still on the mountain.
  • The top cause of death was from a fall, avalanche, exposure and altitude sickness
  • There were an estimated 658 summits in the Spring of 2013, 539 on the south and 119 on the north.

Climbing

  • There are 18 different climbing routes on Everest
  • It takes 40 days to climb Mt. Everest in order for the body to adjust to the high altitude
  • There is 66% less oxygen in each breath on the summit of Everest than at sea level
  • Thin nylon ropes are used to keep climbers from falling.
  • Climbers wear spikes on their boots called crampons
  • They also use ice axes to help stop a fall
  • Thick, puffy suits filled with goose feathers keep climbers warm
  • Most climbers eat a lot of rice and noodles for food
  • Almost all climbers use bottled oxygen because it is so high. It helps keep the climbers warm.
  • Climbers start using bottled oxygen at 26,000 feet but it only makes a 3,000 foot difference in how they feel so at 27,000 feet, they feel like they are at 24,000 feet
  • You have to be 16 or older to climb from the Nepal side and 18 on the Chinese side.

Sherpas

  • Sherpa is the name of a people. They mostly live in western Nepal. They migrated from Tibet over the last several hundred years
  • Sherpa is also used as a last name
  • Usually their first name is the day of the week they were born.
    • Nyima - Sunday
    • Dawa - Monday
    • Mingma - Tuesday
    • Lhakpa - Wednesday
    • Phurba - Thursday
    • Pasang - Friday
    • Pemba - Saturday
  • Sherpas help climbers by carrying tents and cooking food to the High Camps
  • Sherpas climb Everest as a job to support their families
  • Sherpas can get sick from the altitude like anyone

Trivia

  • Babu Chiri Sherpa spent the night on the summit in 1999
  • Apa Sherpa and Phurba Tashi both hold the record for most summits with 21, the most recent one in 2013
  • Over 33,000 feet of fixed rope is used each year to set the South Col route
  • You have to be at least 16 to climb Everest from the south side and 18 from the north
  • Climbers burn over 10,000 calories each day, double that on the summit climb
  • Climbers will lose 10 to 20 lbs during the expedition

Update

I returned to climb Mt. Everest and stood on the summit on May 21, 2011.You can read about my climb over the internet on my Blog at www.alanarnette.com/blog.

This was to raise awareness and research funds for Alzheimer's Disease and 100% of all donations go to Alzheimer's. This was part of climbing the 7 Summits - the highest mountain on each continent.

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