Everest 2015: North Closed, South Res – a full recap

Potential fall lines of ice and debris onto EBC on April 26,     2015
Potential fall lines of ice and debris onto EBC on April 26, discount 2015

First, I want to say that this earthquake is a Nepal tragedy, not a mountaineering event. My deep, deep condolences to all of Nepal, victims, injured and homeless. No country deserves this, much less the gentle people of Nepal.

I am now at the Panorama Lodge in Namche Bazaar, safe, with most of the Madison Mountaineering team.

In recap, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake hit Nepal at 11:56 AM on Saturday April 25. The epicenter of the quake was at Lamjung, which is 30 miles northwest of Kathmandu and approximately 62 miles west of Everest Base Camp.

To keep this in perspective, this is the largest event in almost a century according to the USGS:

The April 25, 2015 M 7.8 Nepal earthquake occurred as the result of thrust faulting on or near the main frontal thrust between the subducting India plate and the overriding Eurasia plate to the north. At the location of this earthquake, approximately 80 km to the northwest of the Nepalese capital of Kathmandu, the India plate is converging with Eurasia at a rate of 45 mm/yr towards the north-northeast, driving the uplift of the Himalayan mountain range.

The preliminary location, size and focal mechanism of the April 25 earthquake are consistent with its occurrence on the main subduction thrust interface between the India and Eurasia plates. Although a major plate boundary with a history of large-to-great sized earthquakes, large earthquakes on the Himalayan thrust are rare in the documented historical era.

Just four events of M6 or larger have occurred within 250 km of the April 25, 2015 earthquake over the past century. One, a M 6.9 earthquake in August 1988, 240 km to the southeast of the April 25 event, caused close to 1500 fatalities. The largest, an M 8.0 event known as the 1934 Nepal-Bihar earthquake, occurred in a similar location to the 1988 event. It severely damaged Kathmandu, and is thought to have caused around 10,600 fatalities.

This post has video and pictures from the Western Cwm, Everest Base Camp Nepal (EBC) and the trek out. As always I will simply tell you what I experienced and witnessed with no agenda.

A few points in the post:

– The Chinese Tibetan Mountaineering Association (CTMA) closed Everest North April 29 for fear of after shocks.

– Another avalanche off Everest West Shoulder onto the Khumbu Icefall occurred this afternoon (April 29), further encouraging teams to leave Everest South

– The scope of death and destruction at EBC was a cross between an F5 tornado and a war zone.

– The event was unprecedented for Everest Base Camp. Teams have camped in this area for decades. The ice serac that released was triggered by the earthquake. It between Pumori and Lintgren on a saddle at 20,177 feet; EBC is 17,500 feet and also presumably off Pumori proper.

As tons of ice flew down the mountain towards EBC, it gained speed and was compressed as it hit the morane that normally protects EBC. This serac and others similar have released before including a small one I witnessed and videoed last week off Pumori and a large one in 2003 that sprayed me at EBC with a air blast but no damage.

Individuals at EBC first reported hearing and seeing an avalanche off the Lho La Pass, but then heard a larger noise to their left. They saw a rush of white snow spray, rocks and debris flying towards them. Our base camp team was in the direct line, some ran for shelter behind the puja rock alter, others hit the ground and tragically, our team Doctor and Base Camp Manager, Marisa Eve Girawong was killed. She was a gentle, kind loving spirit. To say we are devastated by her and the loss of so many, is an understatement.

Camps above and below our general area, mid EBC, were almost complete spared. Other team’s camps that were hit hardest included the Norwegians just beside us, Indian, just below us. Adventure Consultants, SummitClimb, Jagged Globe, Henry Todd, EverestER and SPCC were also destroyed.

Personal sleeping tents were flattened, large dining and cooking tents were sent tumbling. Gear was found a quarter mile away from the camps.

– The stories of “climbers stranded” in the Western Cwm are simply untrue or a matter of exaggeration. We were the highest team on Everest at Camp 2. Others were below us at Camp 1. All had sufficient food, fuel, water and shelter to survive for several days. A few individuals and one team choose to stay in the Cwm hoping the Icefall would be fixed. I cannot say what their motivation was other than the helicopter flight was expensive if you didn’t have rescue insurance.

We also hoped the Icefall would be fixed, but after the 3rd major aftershock in 24 hours it became clear the entire area was unstable and the safest decision was to get out as quickly and safely as possible thus Garrett Madison made the decision to take advantage of the weather to helicopter down to EBC as did other major commercial teams. He guaranteed the flight without waiting for rescue insurance to kick in. I have Global Rescue through the American Alpine Club and I am 99.9% sure they will cover the 2 minute flight.

We hiked back down to Camp 1 where 170 climbers and Sherpas from multiple teams gather around two makeshift landing pads in the snow. The pilots did an amazing job of touching down for 30 seconds while two people jumped on board with their climbing pack. We flew a direct line over the Khumbu Icefall to a landing pad on the rock where they again touched down for 30 seconds or less while the passengers jumped off. The pilot flew back to the Cwm. This round trip took five minutes or less.

I took the video of leaving the Cwm and flying to EBC. Note the huge crevasses near the top of the Cwm, This was the problem in climbing back down without ladders.

-Teams at Camp 2, for the second year in a row, “cached” gear instead of risking more lives by carrying it down. Teams cooperated with one another to share helicopter loads to clear gear at Camp 1.

– Almost every team, but not all, at EBC – Nepal has made the decision to abandon 2015 Everest and Lhotse climbs. There are several reasons:

1. The Icefall Doctors reed to Gorak Shep after their camp was destroyed. In spite of heroic efforts by a few commercial guides to re-establish the upper route in the Icefall, the aftershocks made it too risky. It is disappointing to the climbing community here that the Doctors did little to assist those in the Cwm.

2. There were forecasts of continued aftershocks based on the huge 7.9 level initial quake thus this was deemed an ongoing event and not over.

3. Anytime snow or ice moves, it needs time to settle. The earthquake literally moved mountains and how long it will take to be “stable” is simply unknown.  Also, I had been disturbed by the warm April, there was running water in the “main streets” of EBC when we arrived in early April, normally this occurs in late May.

4. The ”supply chain” of food and fuel brought in by porters was completely disrupted thus no team could count on supplies through June 1.

5. The monsoons start usually around June 1 providing a hard stop to the season.

6. Over 19 people have reportedly lost their lives at EBC, however  there were still tents to be inspected as of yesterday so this casualty count could go higher. Over 5,000 (probably 3x this amount) in Nepal. The Sherpas, cooks, porters all have higher priorities than supporting climbers.

7. By the end of April, for almost every year in the last 10, the route to the summit had been almost fixed and/or rope and anchors positioned as high as the South Col. This year, 2015, nothing had been fixed or positioned above Camp 2. It would have taken a massive human effort to fix the route and build camps for the 700 Everest/Lhotse climbers at EBC.

It was not impossible as shown in 2014 when one Chinese woman and five Sherpas climbed from Camp 2 after flying there along with several more flights with rope and anchors. The Nepal Ministry of Tourism had refused requests to do this same procedure for 2015 prior to earthquake but seems to have changed their mind today.

Bottom line, while not impossible, it will have been expensive, dangerous and difficult to get the route set this late in the season. All this said, Himex posted today they will wait and see:

Our Himex team will stay at Everest BC for the next few days and we will then decide if we will continue or not. Talking to Phurba he tells me that the Sherpas are ready to go back to BC and to assess the conditions in a few days time and will then make a collective decision. This morning when I was at the airport I had a meeting with the NMA and the Minister of MoT and he gave us permission to fly loads to C1, but only after the helicopters come free from rescue operations which we of course totally agree with.

– I spoke with many trekkers who had frightening stories of struggling to stand up, dodging rocks and otherwise grateful to have escaped.

– As I trekked out, I saw little real damage to the upper Khumbu villages.

– The revered monastery in Tengboche had extensive exterior damage. I spoke with an older monk outside and he just shook his head as I pointed to the monastery. I can only assume the damage inside is severe but I hope I’m wrong.

– As I got closer to Namche, there were a few, tiny sections of damage to the trails but all were fully passable.

– I spoke with the owner of the Panorama Lodge in Namche Bazaar Sherap Jangbu Sherpa who was born in Namche in the 1950’s. He said this was the worse earthquake he ever experienced, worse than the “big one”in 1988. His lodge had small damage and others in Namche raged from nothing to severe. There was no loss of life.

But at Thame there was large destruction as noted by Dave Morton. The damage seems to be related to soil type and time of construction with older buildings suffering the most. However, note that many building exterior walls in the Khumbu are simply rocks piled upon one another, so building face fell off but the structure remained sound. In other words, it looks worse than it is, but also, there is true destruction that has made some buildings inhabitable.

– Next year, is the year of the monk, a bad year on the Tibetan calendar thus no new buildings, marriages, etc. will begin after the new year in February. This could have an impact on the Himalayan climbing season after such bad years in 2014 and 2015.

– I stopped at Kami Sherpa’s home in Pangboche where I met his wife, mother and sister. There were a few homes damaged but this high mountain village, where Lama Geshi also lives, was spared.

Kami’s wife kept hugging me with her tiny head pressed against my stomach saying “lucky, lucky, lucky”

Yes, I agree, “lucky, lucky, lucky”.

Memories are Everything


Note:It appears comments in this recap about the Icefall Doctors and helicopter rescues have sparked a lot of comments. In a separate post, I take a deeper look at both for your consideration. You can read it at


  • The New York Times has a good overview of the entire earthquake.
  • A Facebook page has been created for people in Nepal to let others know they are safe.
  • I am holding back in suggesting an organization to donate to as Nepal, while having wonderful people, has a very corrupt government. Also, time like this brings out very suspect “non=profit” organizations. This article is a good reminder.
  • That said this from Lakpa Rita Sherpa, whom I climbed K2 with is solid:

Hello everyone, I am very overwhelmed by the outpouring support and words of encouragement from all my friends and family around the world. With very poor network in the basecamp I have not been able to respond you each and every one of you. Due to the earthquake, my village Thame has lost about 90% of their homes and we are in need of all your help and support. Many of the villages in the Khumbu region, including Thame is very difficult to get in and out of requiring days of hiking, making support harder to receive. The road to rebuilding the community will be very long from here on out.

For now, I would like to reach out to all my families and friends from around the world and ask for your support in the hopes of rebuilding Thame. I appreciate each and every one of you for taking the time to read this and doing your part to help. We are taking donations for the Thame Fund

Donate by check: (NOTE: THAME FUND)
Alpine Ascents Foundation
109 W. Mercer Street
Seattle, WA 98119

Or online at:
PLEASE NOTE: “THAME FUND” in the notes


Juniper fund
PLEASE NOTE: “THAME FUND” in the field notes

Thanks to Altitude Pakistan of the following information:

Here is the list of victims, as per information shared by NMA, details coming from climbers and expedition leaders and deaths confirmed by other resources.

Dreamers Destination Lhotse Expedition
1. Zhenfang Ge (Expedition Leader, China), DoB: 25-07-1971
2. Yomagato Horoshi (Trekker, Japan) DoB: 10-2-1959

First Chinese Women Everest Expedition
3. Renu Fotedar (female) (Australia) DoB:22-7-1965
4. Lakpa Chhiring Sherpa (HAP, Nepal) DoB:18-4-1982

Step Up Campeign Everest
5. Shiva Kumar Shrestha (Kitchen Staff, Nepal) DoB:20-8-1989

Jagged Globe Everest Expedition
6. Daniel Paul Fredinburg (USA) DoB: 8-9-1981

Madison Mountaineering Everest and Lhotse Expedition
7. Marisa Eve Girawong, (USA) (Base Camp Doctor) DoB: 24-12-1986

Adventure Consultants Expedition
8. Dawa Tsering Sherpa (Chawrikharka, Nepal) (HAP) DoB: 31-1-1982
9. Pema Yishi Sherpa (Bung, Nepal) (HAP) DoB: 25-11-1989
10. Chhimi Dawa Sherpa (Khumjung, Nepal) (HAP) DoB: 28-8-1987
11. Pemba Sherpa (Solu, Nepal) (Kitchen Staff) DoB: 25-2-1996
12. Maila Rai (Bung, Nepal) (Kitchen Staff) DoB: 9-5-1973

Tim Mosedale Everest Expedition
13. Pasang Temba Sherpa (Kitchen Staff, Nepal)
14. Krishna Kumar Rai (Kitchen Staff, Nepal)
15. Tenzing Bhote (HAP, Nepal)

16. Vinh B Truong (Trekker, Vietnamese-American)

TET Films & Photography
17. Tom Taplin (Documentary-making, USA), Age:61

18. Unknown
19. Unknown

(Thanks to Bob A. Schelfhout Aubertijn for collecting, verifying and sharing the details).

All photos by Alan Arnette, all rights reserved

IMG_1301 IMG_1315 IMG_1340-001IMG_1364   IMG_1416-001 IMG_1418-001 IMG_1428 IMG_1433 IMG_1442 IMG_1443 IMG_1444-001 IMG_1448 IMG_1449 IMG_1451 IMG_1452 IMG_1461 IMG_1462-001 IMG_1464 IMG_1466 IMG_1467 IMG_1473 IMG_1477 IMG_1486 IMG_1496 IMG_1499 IMG_1504 IMG_1520 IMG_1522 IMG_6335 IMG_6360 IMG_6367

Share this post:

38 thoughts on “Everest 2015: North Closed, South Res – a full recap

  1. Alan,

    Thank you for your updates. Many friends and family follow you to keep up to date and you are usually very well informed.

    However your comments that our claims that we were “stranded” at camp 1 are “simply untrue” is very upsetting. I was at camp 1 and it is not a camp you spend much time. My leader, Dr Rob Casserley has seen it wiped out twice in past expeditions. As a result we were due to stay under 24 hours and move quickly on to the relative safety of Camp 2 (where you were) built on rock and not ice. We were staying in Madison tents and had gas to melt water for one day. And food for the same. As a team we were down to our last gas cylinder and having to borrow food from Adventure Consultants who were rescued first. We had a well stocked camp 2 but no ability to get there. The earthquake could have opened up fresh crevasses and the snow had covered everything others up.

    As you know the team leaders sent Damien Benegas down to see if the ice fall was dependable. IMG coming the other way. After many hours repairing the route another aftershock hit and a very concerned Damien reappeared telling us to aviod the route entirely. No way down, no way up, running out of food and more importantly water and at the time daily aftershocks. How would you describe our situation?

    I wish you the best with you return home, we once rescued, traveled down with Haley, Randal, Joe and other members of your team.

    Daniel Wallace.

  2. I admit that I felt dismayed when I learned that the Icefall Doctors had abandoned their post. They hauled butt out of EBC immediately after the earthquake struck. Nevermind the Icefall Route, they didn’t even stick around to look for EBC avalanche survivors or assist with EBC rescue efforts. Considering that they’re a government-sanctioned group and that it’s basic human decency to help out in a disaster situation, expecting them to pitch in on the rescue effort was not an unreasonable expectation.

    Regarding the Icefall, SOMEBODY had to assess the route before calling in the helicopters. Given that they have a government-sanctioned monopoly over the route and charge a fee for their services, that responsibility is the Icefall Doctors’ by default. They abandoned that responsibility along with all the climbers and fellow sherpas on the mountain. If they can’t be counted on to stick around in an emergency, then why should the teams pay them? Why should they be allowed to have a monopoly over the route?

    1. I think this has been mentioned before by somebody else. They do have their own familes and homes, which surely must come first. If you were on a job somewhere and you heard that that a massive earthquake had hit your town or village with many lives lost. I ask you, what would you do? Me I have to say would be to rush home to my family to see if they are alive. Obvious to me and I cannot understand what you are saying Sadie.

  3. Alan, Thank You Again For The Update And Pictures Of Things Happening Over There. It’s So Sad For The People Of Nepal To Be Going Through All Of This.I Hope In Some Way There Can Be A Way For Them All To Get Through This Horrible Event. Be Safe On Your Return And Thanks Again For The Posts

  4. I agree with those who write expressing puzzlement with the idea that the Icefall Doctors “disappointed” the climbing community by retreating to Gorak Shep instead of risking their lives, while aftershocks continued, to reconstruct a path down the icefall to EBC, particularly if C1 and C2 were well supplied. In light of last year’s tragic accident, this “disappointment” smacks of entitlement at best, and crass insensitivity at worst.
    This attitude greatly validates the comments that Messner and Habeler have made.

  5. So glad to hear you’re OK, I can only imagine what it’s been like. Thanks for your reports, videos and photos; it’s all heartbreaking. Have a safe trip down and back home. This is a very sad time indeed.

  6. So glad to hear you are safe,

    I have sent a donation to Medecins sans Friontieres/Doctors Without Borders, They are already in Nepal & the most incorruptible charity I’ve found,

  7. Can you explain the rationale of people who were “disappointed” with the Doctors who did not want to risk their lives in the aftermath of an earthquake, avalanche and deaths of thousands for the sake of going up a mountain?



    1. This. Maybe the Doctors had other things on their minds, like whether their FAMILY and FRIENDS in the towns and villages were alive or not?

      1. I understand perfectly why the Doctors would not want to take part. I don’t understand the people who were disappointed with the Doctors.

  8. Hey Alan, there’s a real lack of detail available for each trekking overnighter village from Lukla up (thanks for the few you mention), and info for trekking peaks in the area, esp Ama Dablam. Could you please fill in the gaps when known for all these. And give anything related to trekkers enroute too please. Cheers, glad you’re safe. And if you are able post stuff direct to my FB ‘Everest 2015 Earthquake Info Consolidation Page please feel free, I’ve been Sharing our stuff over to there.

    1. Craig, We stayed or walked through: Gorak Shep, Lobuche, Periche, Dubuche, Tengboche, Namche and found lodges, electricity, food and water plentiful.

  9. Thanks Alan. I find it odd that a few experienced teams are still contemplating continuing with a heli-assisted climb in the coming days. After the rejections of the extraordinary South col summit last year, it strikes me as equally as bizarre that heli supported climbs would now be a meaningful goal

    I do think its a time for pause and reflection for these groups

    1. “I climbed Everest (except for the parts that I did not climb) !!!”

      Two years in a row and a bunch of people are dead who didn’t need to be. So that some rich western tourists can cross an item off their bucket list.

  10. Your posts are wonderful, so much info about this awful situation. I was just wondering – were any people in the icefall and/or between Base Camp and Camp 1 when the earthquake happened? I imagine not or some would have said? Take care.

    1. Virginia, yes, there were many people in the Icefall when the quake hit. We had one Sherpa buried up to his waste. He was rescued and helicoptered to Kathmandu and will be fine. Without the helicopters available, he might have had a different outcome.

  11. Great write up Alan as usual. Glad you are safe. I hope people will consider http://www.wideopenvistas.org I co-founded this charity with Dorjee Sherpa after summiting in 2011. We are small and have been focused on keeping kids in school. But we’ve raised close to $10,000 in the last few days and will likely allocate this to helping rebuild a school (or more if we can). We welcome input on this. We are not trying to do disaster relief, others are better at that but schools are important too as the dust settles. We are a 501(c)(3), have open books, all volunteer with no admin overhead other than credit card fees. I have a phd in public health and an RN. Faculty appointment at the University of Washington. So sorry for the land and the people we love. Thank you, Seth. http://www.wideopenvistas.org

  12. As always, you and Dave Hahn write the most informative, reflective and down-to-earth blogs on what’s really going on…..a refreshing anecdote & balance to the endless, repetitive Everest tripe from media and everything-is-hunky-dory dispatches from commercial guiding sites.


  13. Hello Alan,
    as always, I really appreciate your detailed reports and updates! Your website has been a landmark in my research sources for the past years, as I’m a freelance writer in outdoor/climbing fields.
    I totally understand your current situation and I wont steal your time in the valley, but I do have some further questions and aspects on which I would like to read your comments.
    How do you feel about the debate opened by Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler? Both critized the evacuation by helicopter, claiming that choppers should have been used elsewhere in Nepal (probably in Gorkha/Lamjung area) for SAR missions. As you mention in your article, there were plenty of supplies at C1 and C2, so there was no direct need for an air evac. I’m really interested in your thoughts about the issue.
    Talking about the return to EBC and the Icefall, you report the descent of the Ice Fall Doctors to Gorak Shep. For me, this seems to be a pretty legit reaction to the incidents in 2015 and also 2014, but you express your disappointment. Could you give a more detailed insight on this issue, please? Regarding the ancient discussion on “unexperienced climbers/tourists” at Everest, the unability of most members, to descent to basecamp through the icefall, is a solid evidence, that tourism on the worlds 8000m peaks has gone too far. At least that’s one point of view and propably the discussion will heat up stronger than before.
    As a last question or discussion point, I’m always curious about the “waste-” issue on Everest. How did you observe the garbage problem, especially at EBC after the avalanche? To be clear, I realize that there was definetly a focus on search and rescue after the events, but seen longterm, who will take responsibilites for all the destroyed gear in base camp? Apparently, it’s not the expedition members, who are mostly on their way down to Kathmandu.
    Long story short: My post is no personal attack to you as a climber or any paying member on the mountain. I’m currently just collecting opinions and information, to discuss the “Everest issue” later this year!

    Be safe, best wishes for your return to Kathmandu,

    Max Feldstein

    1. Two points. 1. Without helicopters, how would they have gotten down? Answer: they may well not have. (This supports your point that tourism has gone too far.)

      2. I read on one climber’s blog about how thrilled she was to be learning how to clip on to a rope, how to climb a slope with spikes on, etc. WTF? She’s already on the mountain and only then learning these things? How can she allowed a permit to climb when she’s clearly got no experience whatsoever in the basics. And on a mountain where the expression “the death zone” comes into play.

    2. Thanks Max.

      On Messner, and Icefall Docs et al I invite you to read my thoughts on this post I did today at:


      On trash, both members and support staff stayed behind to clean up as humanly possible. I know for our team each member took personal responsibly to find all their personal gear, pack it in duffels for return to Kathmandu. Will the next teams that come to EBC find shredded tents, random shoes and pictures of loved ones? Yes. I hope they collect them with love and respect and it serves as a reminder of the dangers that come with Everest.

  14. Thank you for the update. Glad you’re okay! I wish I could help in some way, I mourn for all the lives lost, even though I knew none of them personally. Hopefully things get better for the Nepalese soon, two of the biggest tragedies in Everest history in as many years 🙁

  15. Alan I’m so glad you are safe. And so sad for all those who were not. Thank you for such a comprehensive report , the video & photos. This is so heartbreaking for all so profoundly affected.

    JT said what I was thinking about the ice doctors. Why would they help more with the risk level raised exponentially. Isn’t this is above and beyond what they signed on for ? I understand the incentive of the guides and climbers. Maybe I am missing some aspect of this.

    1. “Hey Doctors. Go back up the icefall and fix it for us. Time is running out — June is just around the corner. Risk? What? In the aftermath of an earthquake? And don’t worry about what happened last year. What are the chances?”

  16. Hey Alan! So glad you are ok, but so so sad for all that has happened. Thank you for a brilliant report on this. I never see anything better than what you write.

  17. Thank you Alan for this report under such sad circumstances! Watching the news reports from Nepal reinforces how fleeting life can be. May you all travel safely home and hopefully citizens of this world will aid this small country in rebuilding after this disaster.

  18. Hey Allan. I spoke to a young English monk at the monestry who said the interior (where prayers are held) had little damage but the kitchen is a mess. Thanks for an excellent article. Donna

  19. Alan we are glad that you are safe. What a terrible time. I would think all Sherpas who were at EBC that live in Katmandu and surrounding villages, must have been worried out of their minds as how would they know if their families were safe and whether they still had homes to go to? I and many thousands of British people are frantically sending money. DEC (Disasters Emergency Committee) is a great charity and the money goes straight to the appeal. I am sure other countries are also donating heavily.
    Please keep in touch with us. We learn more from you than anyone.

  20. Hello Alan,

    Glad you made it out safely. Prayers and condolences to the dead. May they RIP.

    Just curious what are the charges for the evacuation flight by Helicopter from C1 ?

    You mentioned some climbers stuck it out in C2 hoping the Icefall will be fixed. Are you expected to sign for the charges prior to boarding ?

  21. Thanks for the very comprehensive update, Alan. It amazes me that you are able to keep up with and pass along as much as you do, even in the midst of all this turmoil. My thoughts and prayers are with the people of Nepal and also all of you who will have a very disappointing season, many for the second year in a row. It is my hope that everyone involved will be able to work together well to overcome and rebuild. Heaven knows there will be plenty of that to do for a good long time!

  22. Alan! Thank you a million for your detailed reporting! I’ve been waiting for this information!
    You’re the best

  23. I’m not surprised that the Icefall Doctors didn’t help more. Considering what happened last year and this year, maybe they have decided it’s rather suicidal to enter the icefall following an earthquake.

    1. Just maybe, they were more concerned about the well-being of their own FAMILY and FRIENDS in the towns and villages, who may have been dead or dying, that that of some rich westerners who can helicopter their way out of danger.

  24. Happy to see this sign of life from you, Alan. Well-wishes and all the best to all of your team.

Comments are closed.